Saturday, December 22, 2012

Wireless Networking Technology

Wireless Networking
Technology
From Principles to Successful Implementation
 
Chapter 1: Introducing Wireless Networking -1
Development of Wireless Networking  1
The Diversity of Wireless Networking Technologies - 2
Organisation of the Book  3
 
PART I: Wireless Network Architecture  7
Introduction  7
 
Chapter 2: Wireless Network Logical Architecture - 9
The OSI Network Model  9
Network Layer Technologies  13
Data Link Layer Technologies - 20
Physical Layer Technologies  25
Operating System Considerations  34
Summary  36
 
Chapter 3: Wireless Network Physical Architecture - 37
Wired Network Topologies – A Refresher  37
Wireless Network Topologies  40
Wireless LAN Devices - 45
Wireless PAN Devices - 60
Wireless MAN Devices  62
Summary of Part I  66
PART II: Wireless Communication - 69
Introduction  69
 
Chapter 4: Radio Communication Basics - 71
The RF Spectrum - 71
Spread Spectrum Transmission  76
Wireless Multiplexing and Multiple Access Techniques - 87
Digital Modulation Technique - 95
RF Signal Propagation and Reception  106
Ultra Wideband Radio  119
MIMO Radio - 124
Near Field Communications  126
 
Chapter 5: Infrared Communication Basics  129
The Ir Spectrum - 129
Infrared Propagation and Reception  129
Summary of Part II - 134
 
PART III: Wireless LAN Implementation  137
Introduction - 137
Chapter 6: Wireless LAN Standards  139
The 80211 WLAN Standards  139
The 80211 MAC Layer 144
80211 PHY Layer - 148
80211 Enhancements - 156
Other WLAN Standards - 170
Summary - 173

 
Chapter 7: Implementing Wireless LANs  175
Evaluating Wireless LAN Requirements  176
Planning and Designing the Wireless LAN- 183
Pilot Testing  190
Installation and Configuration  190
Operation and Support  197
A Case Study: Voice over WLAN - 199
 
Chapter 8: Wireless LAN Security  205
The Hacking Threat  205
WLAN Security - 208
WEP – Wired Equivalent Privacy Encryption  209
Wi-Fi Protected Access – WPA - 212
IEEE 80211i and WPA2  219
WLAN Security Measures - 230
Wireless Hotspot Security - 236
VoWLAN and VoIP Security - 239
Summary - 240
 
Chapter 9: Wireless LAN Troubleshooting - 241
Analysing Wireless LAN Problems  241
Troubleshooting using WLAN Analysers - 243
Bluetooth Coexistence with 80211 WLANs - 247
Summary of Part III  249
 
PART IV: Wireless PAN Implementation  251
Introduction - 251
 
Chapter 10: Wireless PAN Standards - 253
Introduction - 253
Bluetooth (IEEE 802151) - 254
Wireless USB - 265
ZigBee (IEEE 802154) - 273
IrDA  280
Near Field Communications  287
Summary - 292
 
Chapter 11: Implementing Wireless PANs - 295
Wireless PAN Technology Choices  295
Pilot Testing  300
Wireless PAN Security  300
Summary of Part IV  306
 
PART V: Wireless MAN Implementation  307
Introduction - 307
Chapter 12: Wireless MAN Standards  309
The 80216 Wireless MAN Standards  309
Other WMAN Standards  319
Metropolitan Area Mesh Networks  321
Summary - 322
 
Chapter 13: Implementing Wireless MANs - 323
Technical Planning - 323
Business Planning  332
Start-up Phase - 337
Operating Phase - 339
Summary of Part V - 340
 
PART VI: The Future of Wireless
Networking Technology - 343
Introduction - 343
 
Chapter 14: Leading Edge Wireless Networking Technologies  345
Wireless Mesh Network Routing  345
Network Independent Roaming - 347
Gigabit Wireless LANs  350
Cognitive Radio - 355
Summary of Part VI  358
 
PART VII: Wireless Networking
Information Resources - 361
Introduction - 361
 
Chapter 15: Further Sources of Information  363
General Information Sources - 363
Wireless PAN Resources by Standard  364
Wireless LAN Resources by Standard  367
Wireless MAN Resources by Standard - 369
 
Chapter 16: Glossary - 371
Networking and Wireless Networking Acronyms - 371
Networking and Wireless Networking Glossary  381
Subject Index - 397
Keyword :
 
2B1Q, 29–30
3GPP, 349
4B/5B, 27
4-PPM, 283
4-way handshake
BSS transitions, 164
RSN key management, 222
16-QAM, 102
Gray coding, 102–3
80211a OFDM, 151
64-QAM, 102
80211a OFDM, 151
8021x, 212
authentication framework, 214
EAPoL transport, 217
8022, 20
8023, 26
8025, 24
80211
basic service set 142
CSMA/CA, 145
enhancements, 156
extended service set, 143
logical architecture, 141
logical link control, 144
media access control, 144
MAC coordination functions, 145
network components, 142
origins, 139
PHY layer, 148
resources, 367
standards suite, 140
VoIP enhancements, 202
80211a, 150, 345
80211h compliance, 160
HiperLAN/2 similarity, 171
key features, 140
modulation and coding schemes, 172
OFDM, 92
operating range, 180
PHY layer, 150
QAM modulation, 102
QPSK modulation, 100
ratification, 139, 150
80211b, 46
channel allocation, 186–88
channel availability at 24 GHz, 154
frequency hopping parameters, 84
high rate DSSS, 149
key features, 140
modulation and coding schemes, 172
modulation methods, 153
operating range, 180
PHY layer, 152
QPSK modulation, 100
ratification, 139
spread spectrum techniques, 80, 83
80211d
key features, 140
80211e, 157–60
ESS mesh QoS, 168
key features, 140
voice traffic, 201
WiMedia MAC, 267
80211f
key features, 140
80211g
key features, 140
modulation and coding schemes, 172
OFDM, 92
operating range, 180
PHY layer, 154
QAM modulation, 102
ratification, 139, 154
80211h, 160, 345
key features, 140
spectrum management, 151
80211i, 48, 209, 219–20
key features, 140
RSN security protocol, 227
troubleshooting, 245
WPA interim measure, 212
80211j
key features, 140
80211k, 143, 162
key features, 140
transmit power control, 119, 163
80211n, 46, 125, 165
Enhanced Wireless Consortium, 165
gigabit wireless LAN, 350
key features, 140
OFDM modulation, 167
80211p
key features, 140
80211r, 162
key features, 140
fast BSS transitions, 164
voice services, 201
80211s, 45, 167–69
key features, 140
resources, 368
80211T, 248
key features, 140
80211u
key features, 140
80211v
key features, 140
80211w
key features, 140
80215, 253
802151
origins, 254
resources, 364
see also Bluetooth
80215, 253 (Continued)
802154a, 80, 273, 280
impulse radio, 121
MAC security services, 305
radio, 100
resources, 365
standards and task groups, 254
standing committee SCwgn, 293
see also ZigBee
80216, 309–19, 328
80216-2004, 310, 321
80216a, 309
key parameters, 313
80216e, 66, 316–18
80216f/g, 319
frame structure, 311
key parameters, 311
management connections, 314
optional air interfaces, 313
PHY layer, 310
resources, 369
standards suite, 310
80221
media independent
handover, 165, 348
80222, 356–58
A
Access categories see Traffic classes
Access point
array, 43, 52
BSS example, 142
channel allocation, 186–88
channel switching, 161
configuration, 189, 191–94
automatic, 196
fat, 46, 196
functionality, 46
link margin report, 161
location, 183
pilot testing, 191
rogue
detection, 189, 235–36
hacking threat, 207
thin, 47
transitions between, 162, 201
transmit power control, 161
wireless LAN controller, 48
Index
398
Adaptive burst profiling
80216 radio link control, 315
glossary, 381
Adaptive frequency hopping
glossary, 381
Adaptive rate selection see Dynamic rate
shifting
Address resolution protocol, 13
1394 ARP, 32
ARP cache, 16
Ad-hoc mode
IBSS operation, 142
dynamic frequency selection, 162
topology, 143
Advanced encryption standard, 212, 225
CCMP encryption, 228–29
SSL support, 237
WPA2 implementation, 220
AIFS see Arbitrary inter-frame spacing
ALOHANET, 1
Alternating wireless medium access, 249
Ambient noise, 118
Antenna
adaptive beam, 57
MIMO compared, 59
beam-forming see adaptive beam
dipole, 107
radiation pattern, 107–8
directed beam, 58
directional, 107
radiation pattern, 107–8
wireless MAN application, 327
diversity, 57
diversity gain, 166
gain, 107
helical, 56
impedance, 108
omnidirectional, 55
wireless MAN application, 327
parabolic, 331
patch, 331
plasma, 59
polarisation, 55
sector, 41, 52, 55
wireless MAN application, 327
smart, 56, 94
80216a support, 312
switched beam, 57
Antenna (Continued)
wireless MAN, 64–5
wireless PAN, 62
Yagi
radiation pattern, 108
AntHocNet, 43, 346–47
APIPA, 15
Apple Computer Inc
iLink, 30
Application layer
described, 10
e-mail example, 11
MSDU and, 22
Arbitrary inter-frame spacing, 157
ARIB, 73–5
80211b channels, 153
ARP spoofing, 207
Association
80211 networks, 147
MAC distribution system service, 149
TPC in association frame, 161
Asynchronous
connectionless links, 259
IrDA SIR format, 282
WiMedia MAC, 269
Authenticator, 214
Authentication
80211 networks, 147
8021x, 164, 212
Bluetooth security, 301
EAP, 216
MAC station service, 148
server, 213–19
wireless LAN security, 208
wireless robust authenticated protocol, 227
wireless USB security, 304
Authorisation
Bluetooth security, 301
Auto-correlation
chipping codes, 82
B
Backhaul
glossary, 382
MAN provisioning, 332–33
Back-off period
in CSMA/CA, 25, 145
in CSMA/CD, 24
Index
399
Back-off period (Continued)
mixed mode operation, 155
randomised, 145
traffic class dependence, 157, 159
Bandwidth
dynamic control, 119
glossary, 382
granting in 80216, 314–16
Bandwidth efficiency see Spectral efficiency
Barker codes, 80–3, 110
80211b PHY, 152–53
glossary, 382
Base station, 327
Baseband
Bluetooth, 259
glossary, 382
Basic service set
ad-hoc mode, 142
beacon frames, 142
benefits, 143
BSSID, 142
infrastructure mode, 142
transitions, 163–64
Beacon frames, 142
time synchronisation, 147
quiet period specification, 161
SSID broadcast, 231
Beacon reports
80211k, 163
Beam pattern
infra-red, 131–32
WLAN antennas, 107–8
Binary phase shift keying, 98
80211a, 151
80211b, 153
glossary, 382
Bit error rate, 96, 109, 112, 129
data rate dependence, 153
WLAN layout, 188
Block cipher
cipher block chaining, 227
counter mode operation, 226
electronic code book, 226
offset code book, 227
Bluesnarfing, 302
Bluetooth
application profiles, 256
connection states, 260
Bluetooth (Continued)
enhanced data rate, 101
devices, 60, 255
discovery, 259
features, 61
security levels, 301
frequency hopping spread
spectrum, 85
glossary, 382
host controller interface, 260
jamming, 207
L2CAP, 261
link manager protocol, 260
master device, 40
maximum transmission unit, 261
packet types, 259
pairing, 262
power classes, 258
profiles, 255–56
protocol stack, 257
radio, 258
DPSK modulation, 101, 258
Gaussian FSK, 102, 258
resources, 364
RFCOMM, 261
security, 300–03
services
discovery, 262
security levels, 301
special interest group, 255, 265
standard data rate, 102
usage examples, 263
VoIP connection, 349
vulnerabilities, 302
Bridging, 53
WLAN point-to-point, 189
British Telecom, 349
Broadcast, 383
monitoring, 207
Broadband wireless access, 309
BSS see Basic service set
BSSID, 142
Business planning
MAN implementation, 323, 332
C
Cash flow projection, 336–37
Change control, 197
Index
400
Channel allocation
80211b access points, 186–88
Channel bonding
80211g enhancement, 156
Channel state information
MIMO radio, 125
80211k reports, 163–64
Channel switching
access point initiation, 161
Chipping codes, 80, 82
auto-correlation, 82
direct sequence UWB radio, 122
glossary, 383
length versus processing gain, 153
multi-channel CDMA, 353
orthogonality, 82, 353
Ciphers
block, 225
cipher block chaining, 227
counter mode operation, 226
electronic code book, 226
offset code book, 227
Rijndael, 225
stream, 225
Code division multiple access, 94
Coding rate
80211a PHY, 151–52
80211g PHY, 154
80211n mechanisms, 166
defined, 151
Coexistence
alternating wireless medium access, 249
Bluetooth and 80211, 247
deterministic frequency nulling, 249
wireless LAN attribute, 178
wireless PAN attribute, 298
Cognitive radio, 355
resources, 370
Communication services
connection oriented, 21, 314, 383
connectionless, 21
Complementary code keying, 82
80211b PHY, 152–53
glossary, 383
Connection oriented, 21, 383
80216 MAC, 314
Contention period, 25
Contention free period, 147
Control frames
CTS/ACK, 146
DTR/DSR, 261
mixed mode operation, 155
RTS/CTS, 155
Bluetooth RFCOMM, 261
Cover ge holes,
WLAN site survey, 184
Cross-correlation
chipping codes, 82
Cryptoanalytic attacks, 207
CSMA/CA, 25, 145
glossary, 383
CSMA/CD, 23
glossary, 383
timing, 24
Customer mapping, 334
Customer premises equipment, 331
installation, 332
Cyclic redundancy check
glossary, 384
WEP message integrity, 210, 213
D
Data encryption standard, 226
Data link layer
described, 10
e-mail example, 11
technologies, 20
ISDN, 30
Data rate
80211/a/b/g comparison, 157
effective, 156, 165
headline versus effective, 156
versus operating range, 2
Data transfer
asynchronous, 32
see also Asynchronous
isochronous, 32
see also Isochronous
dBm
defined, 106
glossary, 384
DCF see Distributed
coordination function
Deauthentication
MAC station service, 148
Default gateway, 14
Index
401
Delay spread
glossary, 384
mobile WiMAX, 316
multipath, 114
voice services, 201
Denial of service, 206
Detector sensitivity
infra-red, 132
wavelength dependence, 133
Deterministic frequency nulling, 249
DFS see Dynamic frequency selection
Differential phase shift keying, 100
80211b DPSK, 152
glossary, 384
DIFS see Distributed inter-frame spacing
Digital signatures
PKI certificates, 219
SSL certificates, 239
voice service security, 203
Direct sequence spread spectrum, 83–4
glossary, 385
interference with FHSS, 248
ZigBee radio, 276
Direct sequence UWB radio, 121
Directed beaconing
wireless USB devices, 270
Disassociation
MAC distribution system service, 149
Distributed coordination function, 145
80211e enhancements, 157
timing, 146
Distributed inter-frame spacing, 145
Distributed reservation channel access, 168
Distributed reservation protocol
WiMedia MAC, 268
Distribution system
ESS operation, 144
MAC services, 147, 149
mesh networks, 167
wired, 143
wireless, 167
Diversity
frequency, 318
glossary, 385
spatial, 59
Diversity gain, 166
Dual band radios
WLAN application, 183
Dual carrier modulation, 104, 123
Dual mode
VoIP handsets, 202
Dynamic rate shifting
80211b PHY, 152
Dynamic frequency selection
80211h, 160–62
ad-hoc mode, 162
glossary, 385
E
EAP see Extensible authentication
protocol
ECMA 340, 287
field strength specification, 288
modulation and coding, 289
Effective data rate
Bluetooth, 255
wireless LAN attribute, 178
wireless PAN attribute, 297
Effective isotropic radiated power
80211a limits, 150
defined, 107
FCC and ETSI limits, 73–4
glossary, 385
wireless MAN set-up, 326
Electromagnetic spectrum
see Spectrum
Encoding
2B1Q, 29–30
4B/5B, 27–28
MLT-3, 28
Manchester, 28
NRZI, 33
noise immunity and, 34
E-mail
OSI example, 11
Emitter power density, 131
Encryption
cipher block chaining, 220
counter mode, 226
electronic code book, 226
stream ciphers, 225
Enhanced DCF, 145
timing, 158–59
Enhanced Wireless
Consortium, 165
Ericson Mobile Communications, 254
Index
402
Error correction
80216e enhancements, 317
cyclic redundancy check, 384,
210, 213
forward error correction, 386
low density parity check, 351
ESS see Extended service set
Ethernet, 1, 26
address, 22
collision detection, 145
CSMA/CD and, 23
fast, 27
ETSI, 73–75
80211b channels, 153
Bluetooth RFCOMM adaptation, 261
DECT and HomeRF, 170
HIPERMAN, 319
Evil twin intercept, 207
Exposed station, 76
Extended service set
defined, 143
roaming between, 144
Extended unique identifier
1394 ARP and, 32
glossary, 386
Extensible authentication
protocol, 215
4-way handshake, 223
EAPoL, 216
EAP types, 217
key hierarchy, 222
F
Fade margin, 116–17
Fading
glossary, 386
Fast Fourier transform, 92
multi-channel CDMA, 353
FCC, 73–5, 150
80211b channels, 153
spectrum policy review, 356
television spectrum reuse, 356–58
Financial plan, 336
profitability analysis, 337
Firewall
glossary, 386
voice service security, 239
wireless hotspot security, 238
FireWire, 26
CSR architecture
range, 31
resources, 366
topology, 31
wireless 1394, 123, 272
Frame bursting see Packet bursting
Free space loss, 112–14
Frequency diversity, 318
Frequency division duplexing, 88–89
80216, 311
Frequency division multiple
access, 88–89
Frequency hopping spread
spectrum, 84–85
Bluetooth hopping patterns, 262
French regulations, 85
glossary, 387
interference, 247–48
multi-band OFDM, 123
Frequency reuse, 355
glossary, 386
polarisation based, 355
Frequency shift keying, 101
Gaussian, 102
Freshness check
ZigBee security, 305
Fresnel zone theory, 114
glossary, 387
WMAN site survey, 324
G
Gaussian frequency shift keying, 102
Gateway, 387
Gigabit wireless LAN, 350
usage scenarios, 351
Grant per connection, 316
Gray coding, 102–103
Guard interval, 92
80211n, 166
multi-channel CDMA, 353
Guard tones, 123
H
Hacking threats, 205
Harris Semiconductor, 82
HCF see Hybrid coordination function
HCF controlled channel access, 159
Index
403
Hidden station, 76
80211k reports, 163–64
wireless USB awareness, 270
HiperLAN/2, 171–73, 183
resources, 369
HIPERMAN, 319
key parameters, 320
Home area network, 274
Home automation, 61
Home RF, 87, 170, 183
shared wireless access protocol, 170
Hub
active, 38
passive, 39
switching, 39
glossary, 394
Hybrid coordination function, 158
I
IBSS see Independent basic service set
ICMP, 17
IEEE
OSI model and, 12
IEEE 1394 see FireWire
iLink see FireWire
Impedance matching, 108
Impulse radio
pulse position modulation, 104
UWB radio, 121
ZigBee candidate PHY layer, 86
Independent basic service set, 142
topology, 143
Inductive coupling
load modulation, 128
NFC devices, 127
Industry Canada, 73–4
Infrastructure mode
BSS operation, 142
glossary, 387
topology, 143
Initialisation vector
glossary, 387
WEP encryption, 209
Insertion attack
hacking threat, 207
Instrument, Scientific and Medical, 71
spectrum allocation, 72
Interference
80211h extensions, 160
Interference (Continued)
dynamic rate shifting, 152
DSSS and FHSS, 248
mitigation techniques, 118
multipath, 58, 91, 114
packet fragmentation strategy, 155
site survey, 184
transmit power control, 161
wireless LAN attribute, 178
wireless PAN attribute, 298
ZigBee, 279
Inter-frame spacing
traffic class dependence, 159
International Telecommunications Union, 73
spectrum harmonisation, 151
Internet Engineering Task Force, 49, 51
Internet point-of-presence, 332
glossary, 391
Interoperability
80211b and 80211g, 139, 155
Bluetooth and UWB, 265
IrDA, 283
spectrum sharing, 357
wireless PAN user requirement, 297
Inter-packet gap, 27
Inter-symbol interference, 91
Intrusion detection, 235–37
Inverse fast Fourier transform
multi-channel CDMA, 353
Inverse square law, 131
IP address, 13
access point configuration, 193
glossary, 388
IANA, 15
IP 1394, 32
IP v6, 15
IP v7, 16
private, 15, 18–9
IrBurst, 296
IrDA
device alignment, 281
LAN access, 286
link distance, 282
minimum emitter power, 132
origins, 280
physical layer, 131, 282
protocol stack, 282
optional, 284
pulse position modulation, 104
Index
404
IrDA (Continued)
resources, 366
security, 305
ISDN, 26, 29
ISM see Instrument, Scientific and Medical
Isochronous
glossary, 388
WiMedia MAC, 268–69, 271
ITU see International Telecommunications
Union
J
Jamming
hacking threat, 207
Jitter
glossary, 387
voice services, 201
K
Kerberos, 235–36
L
Last mile broadband access, 309
Latency
glossary, 388
Leasing agreements, 338
Light emitting diode
emitter power density, 131
polar diagram, 132
Line-of-sight
glossary, 388
Link budget, 116, 129
access point report, 161
ambient noise environment, 118
fade margin, 116–17
wireless MAN set-up, 326, 339
Link distance
infra-red, 133
Link margin see Link budget, fade margin
Link quality indicator, 119
Linux, 35
Load modulation, 128, 289
Location based services, 272
Logial architecture, 9
Logical link control, 20
Losses
cables and connectors, 108
free space loss, 112–14
path loss, 161
Low density parity check, 351–53
glossary, 389
Lucent Technologies, 82
LWAPP, 49
functions, 51
M
MAC see Media access control
MAN see Metropolitan area network
Manchester coding
glossary, 389
NFC coding, 289–90
MANET see Mesh networks
Man-in-the-middle attack, 207
Magnetic field strength, 288
Marketing plan, 333
Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, 235
MBOA Alliance, 123
MC-CDMA, 2
Media access control, 21
address, 20, 22
filtering, 234
alternating wireless, 249
contention based, 145
ZigBee, 276
coordination functions, 145
CSMA/CA, 25, 276
CSMA/CD, 23
data link layer technology, 20
distribution system services, 147
efficiency
defined, 167
gigabit wireless LAN, 351
TDMA versus CSMA/CA, 171
frame
four address format, 168
structure, 22–3
glossary, 389
header, 229
protocol data unit
encryption, 228–29
service access point, 53
glossary, 389
service data unit, 21–22
services, 144
station services, 147–48
wireless, 144
WiMedia MAC media access slots, 268
Index
405
Media access control (Continued)
wired networks, 22
token, 24
wireless networks, 25
Media independent handover, 347–50
Media reservations
pre-allocation in 80211r, 165
Mesh coordination function, 168
Mesh networks, 43
distributed control, 43
implementation considerations, 279
metropolitan area, 321
resources, 368
routing, 43, 345–46
ant inspired, 346–47
security, 168
throughput, 44
Message integrity check, 212, 389
wireless LAN security measure, 208
wireless robust authenticated
protocol, 227
WEP, 210
Metropolitan Area Network
antennas, 64
location, 328, 330
selection, 327
backhaul, 332–33
business planning, 332
configuration, 66
coverage options, 328–29
CPE installation, 331, 339–40
customer mapping, 334
base station, 41, 63
selection, 327
devices, 62
equipment location, 326
financial plan, 336
implementation, 323
link budget, 326
management and operations
plan, 335
mesh networks, 321
mobile MAN devices, 66
service bundle, 335
site surveying, 324, 339
transmitter power, 331
uptake curves, 334
Miller coding, 390
MIMO, 2, 43, 59, 124
glossary, 390
space division multiplexing, 124
Minimum threshold irradiance, 132–33
MISO, 125–26
Mixed mode operation
80211b and 80211g, 155
throughput impact, 155
Mobility
distribution system, 144
wireless PAN user requirement, 296
Modulation, 95
4-PPM, 283
80211a OFDM methods, 151
80211n mechanisms, 166
80211n OFDM methods, 167
80216, 312
adaptive burst control, 315
binary phase shift keying, 98
bit error rate, 110
differential phase shift keying, 100
dual carrier, 104, 123
frequency shift keying, 101
glossary, 390
HHH, 283
IrDA, 283
NRZI, 97
offset QPSK, 100, 276
on-off keying, 97
phase shift keying, 98
pulse amplitude modulation, 29, 86, 121–22
pulse position modulation, 86, 104
pulse shape modulation, 105, 122
quadrature amplitude modulation, 102
quadrature phase shift keying, 99
RZI, 97, 282–83
Modulation index, 390
Motorola, 349
Multi-band OFDM
spatial location, 61
UWB radio, 121–22
Multicast, 390, 220
Multi-path propagation, 58, 91
80216, 312, 317
Multiple access techniques, 87
code division, 94
frequency division, 88
OFDM, 89
Index
406
Multiple access techniques (Continued)
space division, 94, 124
time division, 87
N
Near field communications
collision detection, 290
devices, 126
modulation methods, 289
origins, 287
PHY layer, 288
protocol stack, 289
resources, 367
usage models, 291
NetStumbler, 246
Network adapter
MAC address, 22
See also Network interface car
Network address translation, 18
glossary, 390
static and dynamic, 19
static NAT table, 18
Network architecture
logical, 9
physical, 37–67
Network bridging see Bridging
Network capacity
bandwidth requirements, 180
comparison for WLAN
technologies, 181
voice calls, 199–200
WLAN attribute, 178
Network ID
determining, 14
Network interface card
configuration, 194
disabling, 238
wireless, 45
Network layer
described, 10
e-mail example, 11
ISDN and, 30
technologies, 13
Network management, 196
Network operating system
configuration, 191, 195
considerations, 34
Network performance monitoring, 197
Network policies, 198
Network throughput
signal strength dependency, 112
Network topology see Topology
NFC see Near field communications
Noise floor
graphical display, 185
WMAN survey, 325
Noise power density, 109
Noise and interference survey
WLAN site survey, 184
Nonce
CBC-MAC, 227
glossary, 390
key generation, 222
Novell Netware, 35
Null tones, 123
O
OBEX, 281
IrOBEX, 285
OFDM see Orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing
OFDMA
scalable, 316
Offset QPSK modulation, 100, 276
Operating mode
access point configuration, 193–94
Operating procedures
wireless MAN, 336
Operating range
factors influencing in WLANs, 180, 182
indoor versus PHY data rate, 182
versus data rate, 2
wireless PAN attribute, 298
Operating system
considerations, 34
see also Network operating system
Operations
customer helpline, 339
financial, 340
leasing agreement, 338
performance monitoring, 197–98
subscriber agreement, 338
wireless LAN, 197
wireless MAN, 335
operating cost elements, 336
start-up phase, 337
Index
407
Orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing, 2, 89, 151
80211a, 151
80211g, 154
enhanced channel bandwidths, 165
glossary, 391
pilot tones, 92
tone orthogonality, 90
transciever block diagram, 93
Orthogonality
multiple access codes, 95
chipping codes, 82, 353
OFDM tones, 90
OSI model, 9–13
P
Packet binary convolution coding
80211b optional modulation, 153
glossary, 391
Packet bursting, 155
Packet delay
voice services, 201
Packet error rate, 109
payload size dependency, 119
Packet fragmentation, 155
Pairing
glossary, 391
Pairwise temporal keys
glossary, 391
hierarchy, 222
PAN see Personal Area Network
Passphrase, 209
Bluetooth device pairing, 262
changing default, 232
wireless USB security, 304
Password authentication protocol, 216
Path loss
access point estimate, 161
PBCC see Packet binary
convolution coding
PCF see Point coordination function
Peer-to-peer mode see Ad-hoc mode
Penetration
reduced at 5 GHz, 152
see also Signal attenuation
Personal Area Network
devices, 60
rate versus range, 292
Personal operating space, 253
Phase constellation, 99
frequency hopping, 123
Gray coding, 102–3
multi-band UWB radio, 122
Phase shift keying, 98
Photodiode
minimum threshold irradiance, 132–33
wavelength dependence, 133
Physical layer
described, 10
infra-red, 149
IrDA, 131
technologies, 25
maximum data rate and, 26
wired networks, 26
wireless networks, 34–5
PLCP, 25
PMD sublayer, 26
Physical layout
designing for WLAN, 185–89
factors influencing, 186–87
planning tools, 187
provisional, 185
testing for WLAN, 183
wireless switches, 189
Physical medium, 26
copper cable, 31
glossary, 394
optical fibre, 31
radio transmission, 75
twisted pair (UTP), 27–8
Piconet, 255, 262
Pilot testing
voice services, 202
wireless LAN, 176, 190
aspects, 191
wireless PAN, 300
Pilot tones, 92, 123
80211a PHY, 151
80211g PHY, 154
PKI see Public key infrastructure
Point coordination function, 145–46
Inter-frame spacing, 147
quality of service, 147
Polarisation, 55–56
WMAN site survey, 325
gigabit WLAN frequency reuse, 355
Index
408
Port address translation, 19
PAT table, 20
Power density, 81
infra-red, 130
Power efficiency, 96
Presentation layer
described, 10
security see SSL
Print server, 53
Probe frame
80211 association, 147
DFS specification, 161
Processing gain, 109
packet binary convolution coding, 153
glossary, 392
Profitability analysis, 337
Protocols
installing, 195
Pseudo-noise code, 80–1, 94, 121
Public key infrastructure, 219
secure socket layer, 237
Pulse amplitude modulation, 29,
86, 121–22
Pulse position modulation, 86, 104
infra-red PHY, 149
Pulse shape modulation, 105,122
Q
Quadrature phase shift keying, 99
80211a OFDM, 151
80216, 312
glossary, 392
Quality of service
80211e, 157
80216, 314
Bluetooth, 261
continuous through transitions, 165
Enhanced DCF, 158
VoIP services, 201
wireless LAN attribute, 178
wireless PAN attribute, 298
R
Radian sphere
defined, 126
Radiant intensity
infra-red, 130–131
Radio resource measurements, 162
RADIUS
authentication server, 215–18
EAP over RADIUS, 215
RC4 cipher, 207, 209–10, 225
weakness in WEP implementation, 211
secure socket layer support, 237
Reassociation
MAC distribution system
service, 149
TPC in association frame, 161
Received signal strength indicator, 119
Bluetooth class 1 devices, 258
roaming decisions, 163
WLAN layout, 188
Receiver sensitivity, 108
defined, 111
glossary, 392
receiver noise figure, 110
receiver noise floor, 108, 110–11
defined, 111
Reflection coefficient
infra-red, 134
Replay attack, 207
Request for Comments
glossary, 392
RFC 1918, 15
RFID, 126, 287
RF propagation
local environmental conditions, 186
transmitter power, 106
RF spectrum, 71
regulation, 73
unlicenced use, 74
Rijndael cipher, 225
Roaming
80211k, 162
algorithm, 163
alternative access points, 144
roaming decisions, 163
transition times, 201
WLAN scenarios, 162
voice services, 201
Robust security network, 220
AES-CCMP, 228
authentication, 221
information element content, 221
key management, 222
parameter negotiation, 221
Index
409
Robust security network (Continued)
wireless robust authenticated protocol, 227
Routing
ant inspired, 346–47
bandwidth impact, 345
distribution system, 144
dynamic, 43
glossary, 385
glossary, 393
MANETS, 18
mesh networks, 168–69, 345
RIP, 17
router table, 16, 275
stochastic, 346
transitions
heterogeneous, 348
homogeneous, 347
RSA algorithm, 237
glossary, 393
RSN see Robust security network
RSSI see Received signal
strength indicator
S
Scalable OFDMA, 316–18
Scatternet, 255, 262
glossary, 393
Secure Socket Layer,
presentation layer security, 11, 237–39
Security
access point configuration, 193–94
Bluetooth, 300–303
denial of service attack, 202, 206
IrDA, 305
MAC address filtering, 234
mesh networks, 168–69
troubleshooting, 247
wireless hotspot, 236
wireless LAN
practical measures, 230–36
security attribute, 178
security measures, 208
wireless PAN, 300
wireless switch features, 196
wireless USB, 303–4
voice services, 202, 239
ZigBee, 304–5
SEEMesh, 45, 168
Serial Ir link, 281
Service access points
data rate at, 156
LLC SAP, 21
MAC SAP, 21
Session highjacking, 207
Session layer
described, 10
Shared keys
changing default, 232
Shared wireless access protocol, 170
Short inter-frame spacing, 146
DFS channel switch
announcement, 161–62
Side channel attacks, 208
Siemens AG, 355
SIFS see Short inter-frame spacing
Signal attenuation
building materials, 116
indoors, 115
Signal strength survey
results display, 186
WLAN survey aspects, 185
Signal-to-interference ratio, 188
Signal-to-noise ratio, 109–12
data rate dependence, 153
defined, 109
WLAN layout, 188
SIMO, 125
SISO, 125
Site report
80211k report, 163–64
Site survey
fade margin, 116
Fresnel zone, 324
objectives, 183
simulation, 324
subscriber location, 325, 339
troubleshooting, 246–47
Slot time, 145
Smart antennas, 56, 94
80216 support, 312
SNMP
glossary, 393
performance data collection, 197
WLAN security, 236
Software defined radio, 355
Solid angle
defined, 130
Space division multiple access, 94
Index
410
Space division multiplexing, 124
Space time block coding, 126
Spam over internet telephony, 203
Spatial diversity, 59
Spatial location, 61, 272
Spatial reuse, 169
Spectral efficiency, 83, 96, 102, 111
gigabit wireless LAN, 351
glossary, 393
Spectral shaping
multi-band OFDM, 123
Spectrum
electromagnetic, 129
radio frequency, 71
FCC allocation, 72
map for spectrum sharing, 358
sensing for vertical sharing, 357
Spectrum agile radio, 74, 356–58
see also Cognitive radio
Spectrum analyser
WMAN site survey, 325
Spread spectrum, 76–87
benefits, 86–7
chirp, 121
direct sequence, 78, 83–4
frequency hopping, 78, 84–5
glossary, 394
hacking threats, 205
hybrid, 79–80
pulsed FM, 79
time hopping, 78
types, 77
SSID, 51
access point configuration, 193–94
broadcast, 193
disabling broadcast, 231
glossary, 393
probe frame, 147
Standards
IEEE 1394, 31
OSI model, 9
proprietary extensions, 155
Steradian, 130
Stigmergy, 346
Stress testing
voice services, 202
Subchanelization, 316, 318
Subnet mask, 14, 17
Supplicant, 214
Switch
wireless LAN switch, 41
features, 50
LWAPP, 49
see also Hub, switching
Synchronous
connection oriented links, 259
glossary, 394
IrDA FIR, 283
links, interference, 248
T
Technical planning
MAN implementation, 323
Technical requirements
wireless LAN
comparison of technologies, 181
establishing, 179
wireless PAN
comparison of technologies, 299
establishing, 297
Temporal keys integrity protocol, 212
glossary, 394
key mixing, 214
RSN key hierarchy, 223
WPA feature, 212
Texas Instruments, 153
Thermal noise floor, 110
Time division multiple access, 87
80216, 311
alternating wireless medium access, 249
HiperLAN/2, 171
IrLAP, 284
MAC efficiency, 171
ZigBee, 276
Time division multiplexing
80216, 310
Bluetooth baseband, 259
Time-frequency codes, 123
wireless USB radio, 267
Time hopping spread spectrum, 85–6
Topology
ad-hoc mode, 143
bus, 38
daisy chain, 31, 33, 39
IBSS, 143
infrastructure mode, 143
ring, 37
star, 37
Index
411
Topology (Continued)
switched, 42
wireless networks, 40
tree, 31, 33, 53
ZigBee supported, 275
Traffic classes
80211e, 157
described, 160
queues, 158
voice traffic, 201
Transitions
heterogeneous, 348
homogeneous, 347
Transition security network, 222
Transmit opportunity, 159
spectrum sharing, 358
Transmitter power, 106
access point configuration, 193
automatic adjustment, 189
FCC specified maximum, 107
RA specified maximum, 107
transmit power control, 119
80211h, 160
80216 radio link control, 315
Bluetooth class 1 devices, 258
Transport Control Protocol
e-mail example, 11
Transport layer
described, 10
Troubleshooting
connectivity, 242, 245
performance, 242, 246
problem identification, 242
solution strategies, 244
wireless LAN, 241
wireless LAN analysers, 243–46, 249
Tunnelling
glossary, 394
TLS tunnel, 219
Turbo codes, 351–53
glossary, 394
U
Ultra fast Ir, 286
Ultra wideband, 2, 119–24
EIRP limits, 120
FCC definition, 120
FCC spectrum allocation, 73, 120
Ultra Wideband (Continued)
glossary, 394
wireless USB radio, 265
wireless USB MBOA bands
Unicast, 395, 220
U-NII
80211a OFDM PHY, 150
University of Essex, 355
UNIX, 35
Uptake curves, 334
USB, 26, 32
pipes, 33
topology, 33
wireless USB, 123
User requirements
wireless LAN, 175
considerations, 177
establishing, 176
wireless PAN
considerations, 296–97
establishing, 295
UWB see Ultra wideband
V
Virtual LAN
glossary, 395
voice service security, 239
Voice over wireless, 157
80211r support, 164
bandwidth requirements, 199
case study, 199
security, 239
VPN
glossary, 395
voice service security, 239
wireless hotspot security, 238
W
Walsh/Hadamard transform, 83, 95
code division multiple access, 353
Walsh codes, 95
War chalking
symbols, 206
War driving, 205
Wavelength, 71, 112
infra-red, 129
Wavenumber
defined, 129
Index
412
WDS see Distribution system, wireless
WECA see Wi-Fi Alliance
WEP see Wired equivalent privacy
WiBro, 66, 320
key parameters, 321
Wi-Fi see 80211
Wi-Fi Alliance, 1, 220
glossary, 396
WMM adoption, 159
Wi-Fi multimedia, 159, 201
access category descriptions, 160
voice traffic, 201
Wi-Fi protected access, 48, 169, 209
glossary, 396
TKIP, 212
WPA2, 219
compared, 220
WIGWAM see Gigabit wireless LAN
WiMAX, 40, 309–19
forum, 319
mobile, 316
resources, 369
see also 80216
WiMedia MAC, 267–68
distributed reservation protocol, 268
media access slots, 268
superframe structure, 268
WiMedia-MBOA Alliance, 266
WiMesh Alliance, 45, 168
logical architecture, 169
quality of service, 169
Windows
network operating system, 34
winipcfg utility, 22
Wired equivalent privacy, 48, 169
cryptographic weakness, 209, 211
encryption key length, 209
encryption process, 211
glossary, 395
key management, 213
key stream generation, 210
passphrase, 209
war chalking symbol, 206
Wireless distribution system see Distribution
system, wireless
Wireless hotspots
security, 236–39
Wireless regional area networks, 356
Wireless robust authenticated
protocol, 227
Wireless switch
automatic WLAN configuration, 196
layout planning, 189
Wireless USB
channel creation using DRP, 269
design objectives, 266
devices, 270–71
MBOA bands, 268
origins, 265
protocol stack, 266
radio, 267
resources, 365
security, 303–4
WMM see Wi-Fi multimedia
Workgroups
operating system configuration, 195
WPA see Wi-Fi protected access
X
X-10
glossary, 396
Z
ZigBee, 40, 273
20 specification, 280
802154 radio, 100
applications, 278
devices, 61, 63, 273, 278
features, 62
general operating framework, 275
glossary, 396
interference, 279
mesh implementation considerations, 279
optional spread spectrum
techniques, 80
O-QPSK modulation, 100
origins, 273
PHY layer, 275
protocol stack, 274
pulse modulation, 105
resources, 365
security, 304–5
superframe structure, 277
topologies, 275
ZigBee Alliance, 273, 280
 
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